Antibodies to the virus would increase sharply after infection and peak
after about two weeks. But then their presence would decline, generally
disappearing entirely somewhere between four months and one year.
May 24th the first human trial of a possible vaccine has been found to
be safe and may effectively fight the virus.
Scientists in China say 108 healthy adults were given a weakened strain of
Adenovirus to deliver genetic material which
codes for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the cells. These cells then
produce the spike protein, and travel to the lymph nodes where the immune
system creates antibodies that will recognize that spike protein and fight
But 44%-56% of participants in the trial had high
type 5, and had a
antibody and T-cell response to
Oxford Mar 19: A vaccine against coronavirus could be ready as soon as
“80 per cent confident” that the vaccine would work !
---The vaccine being developed at Porton Down is an
intramuscular injection that uses a harmless, non-replicating virus to
smuggle DNA from the coronavirus into the body’s cells.
---Once inside, the body’s cells use the coronavirus DNA to churn out copies
of the “spike proteins” that dot the germ’s surface. It is these that should
marshal the immune response against coronavirus infection. Previous studies
suggest the vaccine should work with only a single shot.
---Vaccines that operate the same way have been used safely in thousands of
people, aged from one week old to 90 years, for diseases ranging from
malaria and TB to Mers, (another coronavirus), and Ebola, for which
it is now being deployed in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
--The Oxford trial is expected to recruit people from a range of ages, but
scientists will be particularly keen to see how it performs in older people.
They are most vulnerable to the virus, but tend to respond less well to
vaccinations because of their weaker immune systems.
The Oxford vaccine, known as ChAdOx1, is one of five frontrunner
vaccines in development around the world.
The US biotech Moderna gave its first vaccine shot to a person in
Seattle April. Another US firm, Inovio, will soon start trials on its
own coronavirus vaccine, which requires a special device to administer
through the skin.
In Germany, CureVac is working on a vaccine, while others are in
development in China.
Human testing for Johnson & Johnson
coronavirus vaccine this fall
has already moved into human
its vaccine candidate, as has China's
April 7th STUDY: COVID-19 vaccine
candidate shows promise in first peer-reviewed research by University of
April 7th STUDY: Trial drug can significantly block early stages of
COVID-19 in engineered human tissues -U. British Columbia -
Vir Biotechnology (VIR)
has partnerships with GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
and Biogen (BIIB).
and small biotech partner Adaptive
are seeking antibody drugs.
are also testing antibody-based coronavirus treatments.
Sorrento Therapeutics (SRNE)
preclinical testing"100% inhibition" of Covid-19 — within four days".
The Chronology of COVID-19 Mutation
around the world
The reason we need a new flu vaccine each season is that the flu mutates
Fortunately, so far the virus that causes COVID-19 mutates more slowly.
But as the above image from Nextstrain.org shows, COVID-19 changes
rapidly enough that it’s likely whatever vaccine we
develop will need to be updated and readministered periodically.
VIRUS RELATED COMPANIES
Symbol PRICE M
SRNE Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. 6.96
ABT Abbott Laboratories 91.05
JNJ Johnson & Johnson 150.87
ZM Zoom Video Communications, Inc. 165.5
DHR Danaher Corporation 163.96
TAK Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited 18.92
SNY Sanofi 47.50
REGN Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 565.55
GILD Gilead Sciences, Inc. 75.02
VIR Vir Biotechnology, Inc. 38.80
MRNA Moderna, Inc. 83.74
HSIC Henry Schein, Inc. 56.60
NVAX Novavax, Inc. 56.37
INO Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 13.86
AHPI Allied Healthcare Products, Inc. 12.50
NNVC NanoViricides, Inc. 8.90
CODX Co-Diagnostics, Inc. 17.66
APT Alpha Pro Tech, Ltd. 13.52
LAKE Lakeland Industries, Inc. 13.53
an inhaled formula of the protein
were at 79 percent lower risk of developing the severe disease.
have potential to downgrade COVID-19's threat . By allowing lung cells to
breaks the virus' grip on these cells, and prevents SARS CoV-2's ability to
reproduce. In fact, within only five days of treatment, the virus almost
July 15th NYT Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker
Excessive production of VWF(Willebrand factor) can lead to the development
of thrombosis, including in the capillaries of the lungs and inflammation
of the walls of blood vessels and capillaries.
attach ACE2 to the end of an
and Sars2 attaches to it instead of the
on our cells. The ACE2 on the synthetic antibody out-competes the ACE2 on
our cells for the virus's attention .
Seem likely to work because they block the chemical signals that activate
Among the 7 drugs identified are:
a still-experimental drug in early clinical trials as a treatment for bile
duct cancer and a form of childhood brain cancer;
a cancer drug developed by Eli Lilly; and
a drug in use already to treat acute myeloid leukemia.
2,000 hospital patients were
given Dexamethasone and compared with
more than 4,000 who were not. For patients on ventilators, it cut the risk
of death from 40% to 28%. For patients needing oxygen, it cut the risk of
death from 25% to 20%.
It aids acclimatization at high-altitude.
It has saved mountaineers in trouble high on a peak.
It “brings life to a dead person,” said Everest guide
Eli Lilly --
28 days of daily treatment with 4 mg of
rheumatoid arthritis drug.
It may inhibit the host cell proteins that assist in viral reproduction,
reducing the ability of infected cells to make more of the virus.
-- such as Roche’s Actemra and
Regeneron and Sanofi’s
are also being studied as a potential treatment for the cytokine storms
The results of clinical trials of the drug, initiated on April 24,
therapy can significantly reduce mortality.
(FDA-approved for the treatment of several types of B cell cancers), improved
the oxygenation levels and decreased molecular markers of inflammation in a
majority of 19 patients hospitalized
a newly discovered natural antibiotic,
could be effective in treating bacterial lung conditions such as
tuberculosis and those commonly associated with COVID-19.
Eli Lilly -- Neutralizing
Antibodies to lower the virus -- infuse patients with an antibody,
giving it over 30 minutes intravenously. It will stay in the body for weeks.
May 28 Already proven safe in Clinical Trial of 700 -- treatment for
Blood Clotting AND Inflammation - ARCA Biopharma -
has shown promise against several RNA viruses, including Ebola, influenza
and SARS-CoV-1, in cell and animal studies.
EIDD-2801 targets the same viral enzyme as
must be given intravenously), EIDD-2801 is an
medication which could be taken at home rather than in the hospital,
May 27: Anti-inflammatories may keep coronavirus from replicating
Researchers in Spain using computer techniques have analyzed 6,466 approved
drugs and identified seven that might inhibit the main enzyme that helps the
coronavirus to replicate, referred to as M-pro.
The approach is already being tested via trials of the HIV antiretroviral
medications lopinavir and
Two of the seven newly identified drugs, both anti-inflammatory medications,
have been selected for early-stage laboratory tests.
sold by Pfizer Inc for arthritis pain under the brand name Celebrex,
used for pets under several brand names, including Rimadyl from
The researchers say the molecular
structures of these drugs could be used as starting points for developing
derivatives with more potent effects against the coronavirus.
May 24 Injecting neutralising antibodies into infected mice, after five
days the viral load was reduced by a factor of 2,500. The drug's antibodies
are produced by the human immune system (to prevent the virus infecting
cells) — isolated from the blood of 60 recovered patients.
is limited in supply but these 14 neutralising antibodies could be put into
treatment with so-called type-1
“could stop the virus before it could get established,
to examine COVID-19 patient data from 300 intensive care units (ICU)
13 How COVID-19 kills
May 12 STUDY: Treatment with Senicapoc can
prevent SARS and the lung damage seen in COVID-19....., we don't treat the
viral infection, but we prevent or slow the development of the disease that
leads to severe damage to the lungs,
fatty acids serve as the body's natural "stop" signals to inflammation. ..
already in clinical trials for other inflammation-driven disease ,,,
contains cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs)
that are grown in the laboratory from human heart tissues. .... originally
created to treat heart failure, can help the whole body.
4 of 6 critically ill ... discharged from the hospital.
were on ventilators. Within four days after infusion with CAP-1002, 4
patients were able to breathe without respiratory support
8th Of more than 1,600 patients between late February and mid-April., 84
patients received 10–40 mg of intravenous
Heartburn med.) daily over 6 days.
Those who got
They were far less likely to die or require a ventilator—a
twofold decrease in risk.
A two-week course of antiviral therapy with
started within 7 days of showing COVID-19 symptoms, is safe and more
effective at reducing the duration of viral shedding than
alone in patients with mild to moderate illness,
May 7th Lancet: With ageing, malnutrition, immunosuppression, and
co-morbid states, our immune system loses the
ability to adapt to novelty.
But the child's immune system is prepared and fit to
react to novelty, a function that might be
diminished in adults and ineffective in elderly people aged 70 years or
Children have the ability to rapidly
produce natural antibodies with broad reactivity that have not yet been
selected and shaped by the reaction to common environmental pathogens over
In infants and children, crucial parts
of the immune system are highly adaptable to new
In contrast, in the elderly, those parts are replaced with the highly
mutated and specific, they recognise their targets but appear incapable of
adaptation to new antigens.
The child immune response might have the
double function of secreting cytokines.
A potent anti-inflammatory cytokine is produced reducing immune-mediated
tissue damage, in particular, in the lung.
as a possible treatment ?
computer-aided drug design to examine the effectiveness of
in treating COVID-19. All four drugs were effective in inhibiting, or
blocking, the coronavirus' RNA proteins from making genomic copies of the
May 1st REMDESIVIR
Follow-on Study: " suggests it may be possible
to develop broad spectrum antiviral inhibitors. ..... theoretical support
for the design of more powerful, efficient and specific ..... COVID-19
"We should pay more attention to
T cell counts
and their function, rather than
of patients," ... identifying drugs that recover T cell numbers and boost
is an existing drug that may be effective
1 Wean patients from ventilators: A big problem with inflating the lungs
using positive pressure to deliver oxygen is that
high pressure causes ventilator-induced lung injury, and in
COVID-19 patients this may compound the lung damage caused by the virus.
"In contrast, pacing the diaphragm distributes the breathed oxygen more
evenly throughout the lungs and this helps protect the tissue from
A second problem is that mechanical ventilation sidelines the
diaphragm muscle and causes it to
rapidly atrophy, which is a major reason
for failure to wean. "Pacing the diaphragm helps maintain or restore its
size, strength and endurance, which is key to enabling successful weaning,"
The diaphragm stimulation therapy is delivered through a central venous
catheter (CVC), similar to central lines currently placed in mechanically
ventilated ICR patients.
The unique central line is used to deliver both fluids and medications,
while also incorporating electrodes that activate the diaphragm muscle,
via transvenous phrenic-nerve stimulation.
"In addition to pneumonia affecting the small air sacs within the lungs, we
are also finding
hundreds of small blood clots throughout the lungs.
This scenario is not seen with other types of lung infection, and explains
blood oxygen levels fall
dramatically in severe COVID-19 infection.
cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies
should be used to treat COVID-19 patients that are at risk of, or have
developed, cardiovascular problems,
"Inflammation plays an important role in the development and complications
of cardiovascular diseases and we have seen that COVID-19 patients with
greater signs of an inflammatory response are more likely to suffer
serious cardiovascular events and are at greater risk of dying,"
".... The virus could directly infect and cause
inflammation of the heart's tissues, aggravate existing cardiovascular
problems, or trigger an over-excessive immune response
in the body, often referred to as a 'cytokine
which leads to the body attacking itself."
keeps the substance
makes blood vessels leak.
We have good reason to believe that with COVID-19 infections we see exactly
this effect: when the virus is introduced,
disappear from the lung cells, giving
free rein in
causing the small blood vessels to leak massively
at the site of infection."
The problems of
can be aggravated by an
This causes even
and damage to the lungs.
can have a potentially dampening effect here, and doctors and researchers
all over the world are doing their best to select the most optimal drugs for
this stage. In addition the long lasting vascular leakage and inflammation
of the blood vessels will trigger the
cascade leading to
of the lungs.
Interventions that are
to treat this
have the capacity to prevent these serious complications and might be
effective in keeping patients out of the ICU.
27: People with certain heart diseases may be more
susceptible to worse outcomes with COVID-19, but the reason why has remained
unknown. Patients with one specific type of heart disease obstructive
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) the heart increases production of the
ACE2 RNA transcript and the translated ACE2 protein.
Normally, this pathological response at the cellular level might be the
heart's attempt to compensate for changes caused by disease. Unfortunately,
COVID-19, hijacks these ACE2 receptors on the membrane of
cells and uses them to get inside the cells. The virus not only gains entry
through ACE2, but also it takes this protein with it, removing
a protective signaling pathway that normally counters the negative impact of
the hormone angiotensin II. This hormone increases
blood pressure and leads to
device that does the work of the lungs by
removing carbon dioxide
from the blood
New research finds a connection
between destructive white blood cells and a more severe disease
course in patients with COVID-19.
"Patients with COVID-19 infection have higher blood
levels of neutrophil extracellular traps, also called
NETs, which are a product of an inflammatory type of neutrophil cell
death called NETosis," The researchers
analyzed blood samples from 50 patients
with COVID-19 ....... to better understand what causes the
inflammatory storm and
blood clots .. They believe NETs may
be relevant given that thrombosis
and inflammation are hallmarks .
Apr 23 Recent observations suggest that respiratory failure in
COVID-19 is not driven by the development of the acute respiratory distress
syndrome alone, but that microvascular thrombotic
processes may play a role.
There is a strong association between D-dimer levels, disease
progression and chest CT features suggesting
In addition, various studies in patients with COVID-19 have shown a very
strong association between increased D-dimer levels and severe
Careful attention needs to be paid to the initial diagnosis and treatment of
the prothrombotic and thrombotic state that can occur in a
substantial percentage of COVID-19 patients.
"Imaging and pathological investigations confirmed the COVID-19 syndrome is
a thrombo-inflammatory process that initially affects lung
perfusion, but consecutively affects all organs
of the body," . "This highly thrombotic syndrome leads to
embolism. Therefore, strict thrombosis
prophylaxis, close laboratory and appropriate imaging monitoring with
early anti-coagulant therapy in case of suspected venous
thromboembolism are indicated."
Findings have also emerged linking COVID-19 more specifically with
Some Doctors Are Now Moving Away From Ventilator Treatments"
Virology lab finds drug
originally meant for Ebola is effective against a key enzyme of coronavirus
that causes COVID-19